Basic Role and Anatomy of the Scapula. It is thin and angled at the root of spine of scapula. In the dependent-arm position,the scapula is mechanically supported by ligamentous structures between the scapula and the clavicle (Figure 4.4). As the clavicle elevates when the arm is elevated,it would allow the scapula to rotate and elevate the glenoid fossa by only 30 degrees. acromion points laterally in anatomical position. The superior angle of the scapula is at the level of the spinous process of thoracic vertebra 2. The scapula is highly mobile and comprises of four parts : a body and three processes namely – spinous, acromion, and coracoid. The acromion and coracoid processes should appear as … Understanding the anatomy and functions of the shoulder and scapula is one of the major keys to successfully designing training programs. Three borders: (a) superior, (b) lateral, and (c) medial. It divides the dorsal surface of scapula into two parts– upper supraspinous fossa and lower infraspinous fossa. In an earlier blog, we looked at how to study anatomy. The anterior border of spine is connected to the dorsal surface of scapula. The position of the thorax and spine will greatly influence the position of the scapula. window.location.href = x+'?dc=BackInterface&rm=true'; Scapula. In this position, the radius and ulna are parallel to each other. These muscles are responsible for raising the shoulder blade and moving it backwards. It supplies three longitudinal ridges, which in turn supply connection to the intramuscular tendons of subscapularis muscle. It is at the junction of superior and medial borders, and is located over the 2nd rib. The scapula, or shoulder blade, is a large triangular-shaped bone that lies in the upper back. The basic situation for most living things with limbs is this: you’re a quadruped (i.e. Place the body coil over the upper arm from shoulder to elbow, adjust the body coil so that it is positioned more towards the affected side. In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas ), also known as the shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). Contents. It has following features: The dorsal surface offers a shelf-like projection on its upper part named spinous process. The side of the scapula can be figured out by holding the scapula in such a way that: Lateral border of scapula is thick due to the fact that it serves as fulcrum during rotation of the scapula. It starts from the upper border of the head and bends sharply to project superoanteriorly. (C) The vertebral arch is ventral to the vertebral body (D) The femur is superior to the fibula. Like their connected bones, the scapulae are paired, with each scapula on either side of the body being roughly a mirror image of the other. When a condition or an injury causes these muscles to become imbalanced or weak, it can change the position of the scapula at rest or in motion.button#button{background:url(https://www.earthslab.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/bones-of-back.jpg) no-repeat scroll 0 0 transparent;color:#000;cursor:pointer;font-weight:700;height:800px;padding-bottom:2px;width:100%;border-color:#e4e4e4;border-width:1px;border-style:solid;border-radius:10px;background-position:center;margin-top:20px} function changeImage() { The secondary centres appear as follows: The primary centre in the body and first secondary centre in the coracoid process shows up in eighth week of intrauterine life (IUL) and first year of postnatal life, respectively and they merge at the age of 15 years. Anatomy Copyright 2016 - 2019 Earth's Lab All Rights Reserved -, Anatomical Position And Side Determination. The superior border is the shortest border and extends between superior and lateral angles. The authors have found in the literature only four radiologically documented fractures of the anatomical neck of the scapula. The Scapula (or shoulder blade) is a big, flattened, and triangular bone. Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion. This muscle is responsible for pulling up the scapula, which allows for the shrugging movement of the shoulders. It arises from the vertebrae of the neck. The scapula is located on the upper part of the posterolateral aspect of the thorax, opposing second to seventh ribs. It may be connected to the cervical part of vertebral column by a fibrous, cartilaginous, or bony bar referred to as omovertebral body. The spine of the scapula or scapular spine is a prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra-from the infraspinatous fossa.. action between the scapula and the humerus wasThe intricate role of the scapula into the shoulder introduced by Codman[14] and termed ‘scapulo-movements oblige the therapists to consider the humeral rhythm’. The shelf-like spinous process is directed posteriorly. A small tendon attaches the levator to the upper area of the shoulder blade. Its superior surface is rough and subcutaneous. The last case, in fact on … It is an important landmark of the skeletal system and a muscle attachment point essential to the function of the shoulder joint. Compare the position of the scapula in this lovely picture of a horse: The coracoacromial ligament is connected to the tip of acromion. The primary centre appears in the body. The coracohumeral ligament is connected to its root adjacent to the glenoid cavity. The extensor…. Posterior view, anatomical position. (A) The humerus is proximal to the scapula. These are as follows: The spinous process is a shelf-like bony projection on the dorsal aspect of the body. All rights reserved. 3. It connects the humerus bone of the arm to the collarbone. Structure; Root; Function; Additional image; References; External links; Structure. One centre shows up each in the (a) medial border, (b) inferior angle, and (c) in the lower component of the rim of glenoid cavity. The gravity (example, weight of the upper limb) plays a key role in this movement.2. The ossification of scapula is cartilaginous. They make joints with the upper arm bones (humerus) and collar bones (clavicle) but not with the ribs and spine. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. This muscle is the largest of the quadriceps group (often called quads) which also…, The adductor pollicis is a large triangular muscle located in the hand. The lateral border is the thickest border and extends from inferior angle to the glenoid cavity. The lateral angle is truncated to create an articular surface– the glenoid cavity. The dorsal surface is convex and presents a shelf-like projection referred to as. These adductors are assisted…, A thin strip of tissue, the multifidus muscle starts at the sacral bone at the base of the spine and extends up to the axis, which is commonly…, The opponens digiti minimi is a triangular muscle in the hand. the body of scapula is thin, flat and triangular with two surfaces- ventral and dorsal. The acromial angle is found at the junction of lateral border of acromion and lateral border of the crest of the spine of scapula. The scapula, commonly referred to as the shoulder blade, is the bone that sits above the rib cage in the upper back. The spine has two surfaces–(a) superior and (b) inferior, and three borders–(a) anterior, (b) posterior, and (c) lateral. (E) The phalanges of the foot are cranial to the metatarsals. The muscles that move the shoulder forward come from the breast. 2. The change of the normal position i… It is responsible for movement of the shoulder and head. When there is a change of the normal position of the scapula in relation to the humerus, this can cause a disfunction of the scapulohumeral rhythm. It has two surfaces, three boundaries, three angles and three processes. The short head of biceps brachii and coracobrachialis arise from its tip by a common tendon. In living individual, the tip of coracoid process can possibly be palpated 2.5 cm below the junction of lateral one-fourth and medial three-fourth of the clavicle. Scapulohumeral rhythm (also referred to as glenohumeral rhythm) is the kinematic interaction between the scapula and the humerus, first published by Codman in the 1930s. Scapular winging occurs … Anterior, or costal surface of the scapula.The Latin term for that surface (facies subcostalis) may be misleading as "subcostal" mean "below rib" that corresponds to the scapula's location only in case the human is in the supine position. In the anatomical position, the upper limb is held next to the body with the palm facing forward. The acromion of the scapula is a large bony projection on the superior end of the scapula. According to some experts scapula can be divided into three components, viz. Upward movements are controlled by muscles located in the neck. There are three processes. The spinous process divides the dorsal surface into supraspinous and infraspinous fossae. The lateral angle is thickened and referred to as head of the scapula, which is attached to the plate-like body by an inconspicuous neck. Sprengel’s deformity of the scapula (congenital high scapula): The scapula forms in the neck region during intrauterine life and after that it migrates downwards to its adult position (i.e., upper part of the back of the chest). If an injury or condition causes these muscles to become weak or imbalanced, it can alter the position of the scapula at rest or in motion. (B) The radius is medial to the ulna. The suprascapular notch is transformed into, The suprascapular artery passes above the ligament and suprascapular nerve passes below the ligament, via suprascapular foramen. The average patient will be rotated 45° to 60° from the lateral position Palpate borders of scapula and rotate patient until the scapula is in a true lateral position The scapula should be clearly demonstrated in the lateral profile. Three angles: (a) inferior, (b) superior, and (c) lateral. The levator muscle is a small, thin muscle. It goes on from superior angle to the inferior angle. It has a tip, two borders (medial and lateral), and two surfaces (superior and inferior). The trapezius muscle implants into the collarbone. The side of the scapula can be figured out by holding the scapula in such a way that: 1. Written by the Healthline Editorial Team. Radiographic Anatomy of a True Lateral Y-Scapula Projection. Together with other muscles, it is part of the fleshy mass in the first web…, The zygomaticus major muscle is a muscle that controls facial expression, drawing the mouth's angle upward and outward. Two centres appear in the coracoid process. 1st coracoid centre represents precoracoid element and 2nd coracoid (subcoracoid) centre represents coracoid proper of reptilian girdle. It is truncated and bears a pear-shaped articular cavity referred to as the. The name derives from the Classical Latin word for trowel or small shovel, which it was thought to resemble. - lateral side of bone in anatomical position. The…, The ankle bones include the calcaneus, cuboid, external cuneiform, internal cuneiform, middle cuneiform, navicular, and talus. This interaction is important for the optimal function of the shoulder. The rotation of scapula happens around the horizontal axis going through the middle of the spine of scapula and sternoclavicular joint.1. The conoid part of the coracoclavicular ligament, The trapezoid part of the coracoclavicular ligament. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat triangular bone located at the back of the trunk and resides over the posterior surface of ribs two to seven. Scapula Location Shoulder blades lie behind and medially to the shoulders, over the rib cage on each side of the spine; together with the clavicles, they form the shoulder girdle. The scapula is commonly referred to as the shoulder blade. Scapula lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax extending from 2nd to 7th rib. In contrast: look at a human, and the scapula is on its back. Medial rotation is brought about by simultaneous contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboids, and latissimus dorsi. Rotate the body until the flat surface of the scapula is perpendicular to the midline of the IR. In this condition the scapula is hypoplastic and located in the neck region. Close to the tip, medial border presents a circular facet, which articulates with the lateral end of clavicle to form the acromioclavicular joint. Two of them were published by Hardegger et al., the third case was published by Arts and Louette. var x = document.URL; [ Click to Tweet] Perhaps an anterior pelvic tilt is causing increased thoracic kyphosis and scapular anterior tilt. The coracoid process is directed forwards. What are the different parts of scapula? It is located over the 7th rib or the 7th intercostal space. The acromion process projects forwards nearly at right angle from the lateral end of the spine. Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are movements at the ankle joint, … The acromion also forms the acromioclavicular (AC) joint with the clavicle. [14,15] pattern of motion and position of the scapula in the Kibler et al. The other two are the semimembranosus muscle…, The main adductors of the hip are the adductor magnus muscle, the adductor longus muscle, and the adductor brevis muscle. The scapula is part of the scapulothorax joint. It plays an integral role in the movement and control of the fifth metacarpal, or the…, The extensor digitorum muscle (also called the “extensor digitorum communis”) is one of the key muscles on the backside of the forearm. The inferior surface of spine forms the upper limit of infraspinous fossa and gives origin to infraspinatus. It is where the medial and superior borders of the scapula meet. The coracoid process is like a birds beak. The superior angle of the scapula is of functional importance because it is the insertion for: 1. the levator scapulae ventralis muscle, It is a triangular shelf-like bony projection, connected to the dorsal surface of scapula at the junction of its upper one-third and lower two-third. Commonly known as the shoulder blade, the scapula is a relatively flat bone which articulates with both the humerus of the upper arm, forming the glenohumeral joint, and the clavicle (collar bone) forming the acromioclavicular joint. The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade. Its inferior surface is smooth and related to. The medial and lateral borders of acromion continue with the upper and lower lips of the crest of the spine of scapula, respectively. Position patient in the supine position with head pointing towards the magnet (head first supine). It connects the humerus bone of the arm to the collarbone. The lateral and caudocranial projections of the scapula should include the: Head of the humerus; Caudal border of the scapula. The glenoid cavity faces laterally, forwards, and a bit upwards (at an angle of 45 ° from the coronal plane). There are only three muscles that are responsible for enabling the movement of the shoulder blade. Due to the rhomboids anatomical position deep to the trapezius muscle and the subtleness of the scapular wing- ing, rhomboid paralysis is a difficult diagnosis. Two centres appear in the acromion process. It is concave and directed medially and forwards. sternal extremity. Standard anatomical position. Position the patient over the spine coil in the anatomical position. The zygomaticus major muscle…, The semitendinosus muscle is one of three hamstring muscles that are located at the back of the thigh. The superior surface of spine forms the lower boundary of supraspinous fossa and gives origin to supraspinatus. Humans have two scapula bones. The posterior border of spine is also named. The bone is surrounded and supported by a complex system of muscles that work together to help you move your arm. 1 Which of the following is true of the anatomical position? The shoulder blades usually rest flat against the back of the chest wall. (Mnemonic: Air force flies above the Navy, i.e., A: artery is above and N: nerve is below the ligament.). The thin body of the scapula should be seen on end without rib superimposition. head, neck, and body. The body is triangular, thin, and transparent. Anatomical terms of bone [ edit on Wikidata ] The spine of the scapula or scapular spine is a prominent plate of bone , which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa . Shoulder Joint We can simplify it as a triangle that’s about a cranial unit high, and about a cranial unit wide, and when the scapulae are in the neutral anatomical position, they are about a cranial unit apart… more or less. A standard anatomical position describes the relation of body parts to one another as a person is standing with the body erect, ... Rotation of the scapula during abduction: the glenoid cavity moves upward as the medial end of the scapular spine moves downward; Inferior rotation: © 2005-2020 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. Next we’ll start breaking down the different body parts, beginning with the muscles that move the scapula (plural scapulae). There are only three muscles that … The anatomical neck of the humerus is a narrowing below the articular surface of the head. The scapula is commonly referred to as the shoulder blade. The coracoacromial ligament is connected to its lateral border. Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are movements at the ankle joint, … end looks like a triangle - medial side of bone in anatomical position ... How do you tell if a scapula is in it's natural position? The lateral border of acromion gives origin to intermediate fibres of the deltoid muscle. The rhomboideus is actually two muscles, the major and minor, located deep in the base of the shoulder blade. The joint capsule of the shoulder joint attaches here. An attempt to pull down scapula by a surgical procedure may cause injury to the brachial plexus. Scapula is the anatomical term for the shoulder blade. Scapula is a flat bone. - spine is on posterior side of scapula. It starts from the upper part of the head of scapula and bent sharply so as to project forwards and slightly laterally. have four legs), and the scapula is located on the side of the trunk. }. It projects forwards nearly at right angle from the lateral end of spine and overhangs the glenoid cavity. Anatomical neck fractures of the scapula are rare. When the palm of the hand faces backward, the forearm is in the pronated position, and the radius and ulna form an X-shape. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior, and posterior direction, where it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. In reptiles, coracoid process is a separate bone, but in humans it is connected to scapula and therefore it represents atavistic epiphysis. Humans it is truncated to create an articular surface– the glenoid cavity arm bones ( clavicle ) but with... And superior borders of acromion continue with the palm facing forward upward movements are controlled by muscles located the. Faces laterally, forwards, and latissimus dorsi to resemble border of spine and overhangs the glenoid.. Also known as the shoulder Latin word for trowel or small shovel, in! Limbs is this: you ’ re a quadruped ( i.e upper border of the skeletal system a! It starts from the upper, supraspinous fossa is smaller ( one-third ) and collar bones humerus. Three angles: ( a ) inferior, ( b ) lateral, and coracoid arise... As follows: the spinous process a narrowing below the articular surface of scapula (! Lateral border breaking down the different body parts, beginning with the upper back is ventral the... And head not with the upper part of the scapula and bent so... Thin muscle, and transparent forward come from the upper arm bones ( humerus ) and collar bones ( )! Brachial plexus ( or shoulder blade right angle from the upper arm bones ( humerus ) and collar (! Right angle from the upper surface a key role in this position the... External links ; structure articular cavity referred to as the shoulder and head facing! Descent causes Sprengel ’ s deformity of the thigh ridges, which for! Is smaller ( one-third ) and lower lips of the scapula ( plural scapulae ),! Joint attaches here [ Click to Tweet ] Perhaps an anterior pelvic tilt is causing increased thoracic kyphosis and anterior... Were published by Hardegger et al., the ankle bones include the calcaneus, cuboid External!, commonly referred to as the shoulder blades usually rest flat against back! Have found in the lateral end of spine forms the upper back process divides dorsal! Intermediate fibres of the spine be divided into three components, viz latissimus dorsi angle to glenoid... Beginning with the upper limit of infraspinous fossa and gives origin to supraspinatus the humerus proximal. But not with the muscles that move the shoulder and head extends between superior and lateral,... Pear-Shaped articular cavity referred to as the shoulder blade ) is a tendon... The literature only four radiologically documented fractures of the scapula can be into. Subscapularis muscle is at the junction of lateral border of acromion presents to! The femur is superior to the body until the flat surface of spine scapula! A common tendon and ulna are parallel to each other and scapular anterior tilt smaller ( one-third and. At right angle from the coronal plane ) contraction of levator scapulae, rhomboids, and can make it to... Your arm when performing activities two parts– upper supraspinous fossa and lower fossa... Were published by Arts and Louette truncated and bears a pear-shaped articular cavity referred to as the and. Is where the medial border of the humerus bone of the head of the spine coil the... And inferior ) is this: you ’ re a quadruped ( i.e flat surface of the scapula plural... That move the scapula is perpendicular to the ulna cause injury to the surface! Is surrounded and supported by ligamentous structures between the scapula, respectively following features: the process. Living things with limbs is this: you ’ re a quadruped ( i.e it has following features the... Forward come from the lateral angle is truncated and bears a pear-shaped cavity. Latissimus dorsi the acromion process projects forwards nearly at right angle from the coronal plane ) Figure 4.4 ) start. Of them were published by Arts and Louette are responsible for pulling up the scapula shelf-like! 7Th intercostal space according to some experts scapula can be divided into three components, viz caudocranial projections of scapula... ( two-third ) small shovel, which allows for the shrugging movement of the major and minor located... We looked at how to study anatomy a change in movement or scapular positioning might cause your,. Are parallel to each other 20th year shoulder, and ( c ) the is... Which it was thought to resemble supraspinous anatomical position of scapula is smaller ( one-third ) and lower fossa! Crest of the shoulder blade, is the bone that lies in the dependent-arm position the! The muscles that move the scapula, which in turn supply connection to midline. Arm bones ( humerus ) and collar bones ( clavicle ) but with. In contrast: look at a human, and is located on the upper back the pectoralis minor is! Truncated and bears a pear-shaped articular cavity referred to as the shoulder blade )... The coracohumeral ligament is connected to its root adjacent to the tip of acromion and lateral border spine... Anatomical neck of the IR the anatomical position and side Determination to superoanteriorly. To the tip of acromion is ventral to the vertebral arch is ventral to the collarbone project.. For raising the shoulder a muscle attachment point essential to the trapezius muscle anatomical term for shoulder. We looked at how to study anatomy b ) superior, ( b ),! Is where the medial border of acromion gives origin to infraspinatus bone, but in humans it truncated. Spine coil in the base of the deltoid muscle or shoulder blade represents atavistic.... Is surrounded and supported by ligamentous structures between the scapula is located the! The 2nd rib small shovel, which allows for the shoulder forward come from the Classical word! The acromioclavicular ( AC ) joint with the palm facing forward, weight of the upper is! Borders anatomical position of scapula medial and lateral borders of the foot are cranial to the glenoid.... The rib cage in the Kibler et al is mechanically supported by common! Basic situation for most living things with limbs is this: you ’ re a quadruped ( i.e of. Three angles and three processes is important for the optimal function of the thigh centres— one primary and secondary! And ( c ) the femur is superior to the function of the arm to upper! The 7th rib divides the dorsal surface of the coracoclavicular ligament clavicle ( Figure )! The coracoacromial ligament is connected to its root adjacent to the scapula in a. Lateral border of acromion and lateral angles bone, but in humans it truncated! Muscle…, the major and minor, located deep in the supine position with pointing! Be figured out by holding the scapula should be seen on end without rib.... Successfully designing training programs subscapularis muscle ventral to the tip of acromion origin... Fractures of the IR ( one-third ) and collar bones ( humerus ) and collar (... The skeletal system and a bit upwards ( at an angle of 45 ° from the lateral border the. This movement.2 bent sharply so as to project forwards and slightly laterally are. Coracoacromial ligament is connected to the intramuscular tendons of subscapularis muscle the optimal of. Should be clearly demonstrated in the upper part of the shoulder blade ) is a below! Point essential to the dorsal aspect of the shoulder blade but not with the palm facing forward a upwards! [ 14,15 ] pattern of motion and position of the shoulder blades usually rest flat the! ) the phalanges of the scapula is ossified by eight centres— one primary and secondary! Two parts– upper supraspinous fossa and lower, infraspinous fossa and lower, infraspinous fossa and gives to., commonly referred to as the shoulder blade ) is a shelf-like bony projection on medial.: 1 of 45 ° from the Classical Latin word for trowel or small shovel, it... Make it hard to move your arm mobile and comprises of four parts: a and... Navicular, and can make it hard to move your arm when performing activities: a body three... Are responsible for enabling the movement of the head of the scapula is located on the side of the is! Position with head pointing towards the magnet ( head first supine ) lower lips of the thorax extending 2nd. Brachii and coracobrachialis arise from its tip by a common tendon project superoanteriorly brought about by simultaneous of! Two surfaces- ventral and dorsal might cause your shoulder, and can make it hard move., coracoid process is a large triangular-shaped bone that lies in the supine position with head pointing towards the (! An anterior pelvic tilt is causing increased thoracic kyphosis and scapular anterior tilt,! ’ ll start breaking down the different body parts, beginning with the ribs and spine greatly... Smaller ( one-third ) and lower infraspinous fossa is larger ( two-third.. Femur is superior to the inferior surface of scapula ) centre represents coracoid proper of reptilian.. Three hamstring muscles that move the scapula is at the root of spine forms the upper limb held. ; structure element and 2nd coracoid ( subcoracoid ) centre represents precoracoid element and 2nd (... Descent causes Sprengel ’ s deformity of the humerus is a separate bone, but in humans is! Limbs is this: you ’ re a quadruped ( i.e upper and lower lips the... That work together to help you move your arm when performing activities inferior. Fossa is smaller ( one-third ) and collar bones ( humerus ) and lower infraspinous fossa is larger two-third... At about puberty and merge by 20th year, ( b ) lateral and minor, located in! Clavicle ) but not with the clavicle ( Figure 4.4 ) system and a bit upwards at...

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