'Elegantissima' red twig dogwood. papers, horticultural articles, and magazine and newspaper columns. Flowering dogwood (Cornus spp.) The Cornelian cherry dogwood species is a small flowering tree or medium to large deciduous shrub with tiny flowers, green oblong leaves, and red berries. Redosier dogwood is also used in plantings for wildlife as its berries attract and are eaten by birds and mammals. Although the taste doesn't rival that of its lookalike, the berries are edible. Shrubby species stabilize slopes and shores, protecting them from erosion. Aboriginal people also used red osier dogwood: the bark was smoked in pipes or used to make red dye and the branches were used to make baskets. expertise covers diverse industries, including horticulture, home maintenance In general, our native dogwoods have four-season appeal. Dogwoods have varied needs, although they tend to prefer sun to partial shade. Use them in combination with yellow twig dogwoods for an even more stunning winter display. The first refers to a European species of dogwood (Cornus sanguinea) that was used for making skewers, or daggers, and would have been referred to as dag, dague, or dagge (dagger) in old English. (Caution: We are not recommending the use of these plants for medicinal or food purposes. If your newly planted cornelian cherry dogwood tree doesn't bear fruit, be patient -- young seedlings produce only male flowers, but second- or third-year transplants begin growing perfect flowers, which can produce fruit. Appearance: From 1 to 3 m. Small, whitish flowers in flat-topped clusters bloom in early summer. Conifers are often called evergreens or needle … Most dogwoods enjoy moist soil and grow naturally along the edge of woods or shores. Prefers wet soils with full sun to partial shade. Flowering dogwood, in particular, proved suitable for making bowls, pipes, mallets, golf clubs, and tool handles. With spring come flowers, sometimes showy, sometimes fragrant. Near the end of winter, but before the buds swell, cut a piece long enough to include at least three pairs of buds and place the cut end in soil or water deep enough to cover two of the bud sets. The risk of GI problems is pretty high, particularly when they are given in high amounts. Their branches provide shelter for land and water animals. Yellow Twig Dogwood is a small deciduous shrub with attractive, bright yellow bark. If dogwood berries were highly toxic or poisonous to humans or pets I would have heard something about it over my 30 years experience in the field. Victoria Lee Blackstone is a horticulturist and This shrub grows up to 15-25 ft high and wide. Appearance The other group are small trees, with large white or pink flowers and with red berries. trees brighten spring and early-summer gardens with colorful bracts and flowers that include shades of white, pink, red and yellow. Landscape Attributes. You can plant only one tree to produce the fruit, because flowering dogwood has perfect flowers, meaning each flower can pollinate itself because it contains male and female reproductive parts. If you plant kousa dogwood as a fruit source for birds, steer away from the Stellar series, such as Stellar Pink (Cornus "Rutgan" Stellar Pink), which is a hybrid cross between flowering dogwood and kousa dogwood. (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), Appearance: 4 showy, white, petal-like bracts surrounding small, greenish flowers appear in the early summer followed by bright red berries by late summer. Numerous white flower clusters appear in late spring, giving way to lovely white berries in late summer. Many plants are poisonous or harmful if eaten or used externally. Because of its native status, soil adaptability and tolerance of flooding and wet soils, redosier dogwood is also used along shorelines and in rain gardens. If you are hoping to encourage your plants in their reproductive efforts, you're in luck. Excellent for hedging, foundation planting and tolerates most soil conditions. Note: Its flower is the provincial floral emblem of BC. It has the same distinctive red bark, white flowers, and berries as Red Osier Dogwood. Habitat: Naturally grows in many moisture regimes and soil textures but usually along forest edges and streambanks, ravine slopes, and open woods growing beneath larger trees in hardwood and mixedwood stands. 'Tis the season for dogwood berries, and that sure brings back memories of my youth. trees brighten spring and early-summer gardens with colorful bracts and At certain stages of development, a couple plants in particular appear the closest of all to Elderberry: the Silky Dogwood ( cornus amomum ) and the Redosier (Red Osier) Dogwood ( cornus sericea ). With … Kousa and cornelian cherry dogwoods are rarely bothered by pests and disease, which make them better choices than flowering dogwood for low-maintenance gardens. The genus Cornus includes many different dogwood shrub varieties, including some that could be called subshrubs. Most research has focused on fruits of the Cornus genus, which are individual clients. Habitat: Grows in woods, marshes, and bogs and likes similar conditions to bunchberry. Dogwood flowers provide nectar to pollinating insects and then become fruit that is sought after by birds and mammals. Black Elderberry (sambucus nigra) shrubs are pretty distinctive, but if you are not paying close attention to what you are seeing, mistaking other plants for them is not impossible. Dogwood shrubs (Cornus spp.) Attractive ground cover growing 7 — 20 cm. Some species — such as bunchberry and flowering and pagoda dogwoods — enjoy slightly acidic soil. Take softwood tip cuttings in the summer, treat with a rooting compound, and plant in a flat for the winter. Several species have small heads of inconspicuous … The red branches are extremely showy and add significant winter interest. Fruits are dark blue, sometimes with white, appearing by late summer and lasting until early fall. Flowers grow from the branch of a kousa dogwood tree. The dark-green leaves are lance-shaped and turn purplish-red in the fall. Red osier dogwood (ROD) (Cornus stolonifer) is a shrub belonging to the Cornus genus and native to North America where it grows as an ornamental plant. Red twig dogwood shrubs should be planted somewhere in your yard where they can be easily viewed from a window, to take advantage of their status as top-notch specimen plants for winter landscapes. Because flowering dogwood bears toxic berries, plant this tree with caution in yards where curious children may mistake them for candy and eat them when they fall to the ground in late summer. From ourhabitatgarden.org: “Our native birds co-evolved with much smaller berries, like the size of the flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) or the pagoda dogwood (C. alternifolia) berries—berries small enough to just swallow whole, which they do. Cornus is a genus of about 30–60 species[Note 1] of woody plants in the family Cornaceae, commonly known as dogwoods, which can generally be distinguished by their blossoms, berries, and distinctive bark. It is a medium to large deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–12 m tall, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs. Flowering dogwood (Cornus spp.) (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ You can grow it as a small tree or a tall, multi-stemmed shrub. As for Cornus, it is Latin for “horn” and likely refers to the hardness of the wood. Autumn leaves are eye-catching, with shades of red and orange and, for some species, a late show of bright berries. We only grow native or proven non invasive naturalized trees and woody shrubs, produced from local seed sources that have the greatest chance for success in eastern Ontario. The berries of the kousa dogwood are pretty useless, too. Good as a border or screen, sometimes pruned to a tree-like form with a single trunk. Dogwood - Ivory Halo DESCRIPTION: A nice compact shrub with attractive, variegated green and white foliage; well suited for color contrast in many garden applications. They grow fast and provide year-round garden interest with spring flowers, summer berries, and exceptional fall color. Native plants add beauty to the garden and provide food for wildlife. Prefers moist, slightly acidic soil, sun to partial shade. The green leaves have the distinct parallel veins that make the shrub noticeable from other background shrubs in summer, but it’s the reds of fall foliage that’s even more eye-catching. m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) Appearance: A small tree reaching 4 to 7 m, sometimes taller, with flat, fragrant clusters of white flowers that bloom at the end of spring or early summer. Dark blue berries form by the end of the summer. Flowering dogwoods (C. florida) have had some difficulty with the anthracnose fungus Discula destructiva, also called dogwood blight, which can kill part or, rarely, all of the tree. The healthier your trees, the more easily they will be able to ward off this fungus. Blackstone has written more Each berrylike fruit contains only one seed, compared to flowering dogwood, which may contain several seeds. ga('linker:autoLink', ['secure2.convio.net', 'donate.cwf-fcf.org'] ); The cooler the climate, the more sun it will need. Habitat: Found in moist woods and streambanks. All Rights Reserved. I live in southern New Hampshire, and the bushes are directly next to a pond. Also known as northern swamp dogwood, gray dogwood is a deciduous shrub that forms thickets as the underground rhizomes spread. Hardy in USDA zones 5 through 9, Stellar Pink is a sterile tree that doesn't bear flowers and cannot produce fruits. Cornelian dogwood berries hang from a branch. It tolerates sun to light shade and prefers moist soil, even tolerating some standing water, but can adapt to drier conditions. ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); Brightly colored red fruits appear in clusters in late summer to fall. A dwarf, vase-shaped shrub with corky ridged, square stems that produces red berries. I ate a berry or two once and it was kind of grainy and not very tasty. Cornelian Cherry Dogwood – Edible Fruit Depending on where you live, you may look forward to one or many of these visitors to your garden if you plant their favorite dogwood: spruce and ruffed grouse, yellow-bellied sapsucker, wild turkey, woodpeckers (downy, hairy, red-bellied, pileated), great-crested flycatcher, eastern kingbird, tree swallow, thrushes (Swainson's, wood, hermit), American catbird, brown thrasher, cedar waxwing, red-eyed vireo, pine warbler, northern cardinal, white-throated sparrow, evening grosbeak, purple finch, eastern cottontail, chipmunk, white-footed mouse, beaver, black bear, white-tailed deer, and moose. Kousa Dogwood berries, botanically classified as Cornus kousa, grow on small, deciduous trees or shrubs belonging to the Cornaceae family. Although the fruits are toxic to people, they are prized by many birds, such as bluebirds, robins and cedar waxwings. Most species have attractive fall foliage in shades of burgundy, orange, and red. https://www.cwf-fcf.org/en/resources/encyclopedias/flora/dogwood.html Prefers partial shade and slightly acidic soil but tolerates both dappled and full shade and other soil media. than 2,000 published works for newspapers, magazines, online publications and It features delicate white, star-shaped flowers and white fruit. A Dogwood tree is a spring flowering tree that bears pink or white flowers. Shrubby dogwoods that sucker, like the red osier, will propagate from hardwood. The key difference between the two is the leaves. All benefit from compost and leaf mould. By creating an account you agree to the Hunker, Missouri Botanical Garden: Cornus Florida, North Carolina State University: Flowering Dogwood, Missouri Botanical Garden: Cornus 'Rutgan' Stellar Pink, USDA National Resources Conservation Service: Flowering Dogwood, Spokane Permaculture: Cornelian Cherry or European Cornel (Cornus Mas). Tolerates a variety of soils and prefers sun to light shade. Cornus alba 'Elegantissima' features gray-green leaves edged in … Visually appealing and magnets for wildlife, these plants are bound to please both the gardener and naturalist in you. Native to: YK, NW, sNU, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NL, NB, NS, PE. To encourage bright red new growth, cut back the oldest stems (above a set of buds) in late winter or early spring before the leaves appear. Creamy-white flowers in spring followed by small white berries in summer. In USDA zones 4 through 8, cornelian cherry dogwood bears showy yellow flowers in spring, instead of the more recognizable white or pink bracts of flowering dogwood. Appearance: Medium-sized shrub reaching 3 m. Flat-topped clusters of white flowers bloom in late spring to early summer. Silver Variegated Dogwood is a multi-stemmed deciduous shrub with a more or less rounded form. Cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas), also called Cornelian cherry or European cornel, is so-named because of its brilliant cherry-red fruits. In USDA zones 5 through 8, kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) bears showy, pinkish-red fruits that resemble raspberries. Habitat: Grows in woods and rocky slopes. Appearance: This small tree of 6 to 12 m has large, showy flowers, either white or pinkish. All trees in Canada can be distinguished as being a conifer or deciduous tree. // ]]>, Native to: YK, NT, sNU, MB, SK, ON, QC, NB, PE, NS, NL. Although the flowers are small and grow in flat clusters, they are lovely when they appear and the berries that form in the fall and winter are highly decorative in either white or blue colors. Appearance: Like bunchberry, but its showy bracts are pale purplish-white surrounding small, dark purple flowers. Tolerates a variety of soils. Dogwood berries are in toxicity class III category, meaning, they are slightly toxic for dogs and cats. It is therefore used for landscaping due to its beautiful flowers which blossom during summer or early fall (Isaak et al., 2013). Appearance: The enormous white blossoms are occasionally pink and grow on 6 — 12 m trees (sometimes taller) with red berries following in early autumn. Visit their Web site at www.noble.org, specifically the Plant Image Gallery. Symptoms include dieback on the branches in the early summer with dried leaves on twigs. Appearance: This vigorous shrub is typically 2 m tall with small, creamy-white flowers in a flat- topped cluster that can bloom anywhere from early summer to. are native to North America and valued by gardeners for their year-round appeal, with spring blossoms, summer berries and vibrant fall foliage. To herbalists, however, it is distinguished for its bright and edible dogwood fruit, commonly referred to as Kousa berries… Please e-mail us, or call Sarah Coulber at 1-800-563-9453 ext. Dogwoods have proven to be extremely invaluable to wildlife and humans alike. The only dogwood with alternate branching, hence its Latin name, C. alternifolia. ga('create', 'UA-3780889-1', 'auto', {'allowLinker': true}); Description. The origin of the name dogwood is anyone's guess, but two likely theories have been proposed. The bright red of red osier dogwood stems can fade in the summer months. The younger twigs are often colorful. Branches red and grey. Dogwood berries - Cornus sanguinea Calcareous scrub bush ID: F3KP0T (RF) dogwood berries on the branches, on a colored background. Her writing Some species, such as flowering and Pacific dogwood, have showy flowers. For one species, at least, snowy winter affords a stunning contrast of bright red branches against the white snow. Dogwood Shrubs are deciduous shrubs with the leaves in pairs along the stems (‘opposite’ leaves). Dogwood Tree Berries Dogwood flowers (those buttonlike clusters at the center of the bracts) rely on insects for pollination. Dogwoods were also valued for their healing properties — bunchberry for cold and colic remedies; pagoda dogwood for treating sore eyes; and red osier dogwood for treating ailments relating to digestion, eyes, and fever. Habitat: Found in cool, acidic woods and damp openings. Native to: sBC (including Vancouver Island, mainland BC, coastal areas, and into the Fraser Canyon). Growing them can save both time and money. White flowers appear in late spring, leading to white berries in summer—they are edible to birds but should not be eaten by humans. It is often used as a screen, and its wide-spreading roots help stabilize areas experiencing soil erosion. a professional writer who has authored research-based scientific/technical Dogwood berries can be bright red, white, dark blue, or even a combination of dark blue and white, as with the silky dogwood. ga('send', 'pageview'); Dogwood berries come from a small flowering small tree having the same name. For optimal display, it is advisable to grow them against a wall that receives ample sunlight from the south or west in winter. [CDATA[ Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is a native plant throughout its perennial range of U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. The flowers are yellow in the spring. Dogwood is a large flowering shrub or tree that has long green leaves, small yellow flowers, and red berry-like drupes. Commonly called berries, the fruits are botanically classified as drupes. It grows easily in a wide range of soils and positions. Even the buds, twigs, and leaves of dogwood are munched on occasionally by local wildlife, although usually not enough to seriously damage the plant. Growing from seed is not very difficult and some species are very obliging with cuttings. Do you have any wildlife stories, tried-and-true gardening tips, or comments? Keep moist. Though, your pet unknowingly ingesting a few berries is unlikely to fall ill. The second theory is based on the reported use of the same species for washing mangy dogs. This shrub has the all time best show of fall colour than any other plant. The two groundcover species have flowers that are rather inconspicuous but appear magnificent framed by the surrounding large, petal-like bracts. Light blue/greenish-white fruit appears by end of summer and can last until fall. The information on food and medicinal value is added for interest only. and DIY projects, banking, finance, law and tax. References include The Natural History of Wild Shrubs and Vines by Donald W. Stokes and Weed of the Woods — Small Trees and Shrubs of the Eastern Forest by Glen Blouin. No matter where you live in Canada, chances are there is a dogwood for you. I've seen people eat dogwood berries before - never a large quantity - and none have experienced any problems. This hard wooded plant has also attracted human interest. This is the fruit of the Japanese dogwood or Japanese cornelian cherry (Cornus officinalis). Most are deciduous trees or shrubs, but a few species are nearly herbaceous perennial subshrubs, and a few of the woody species are evergreen. The fruits are attractive, ornamental, and popular with birds, as well. All other species images by Sarah Coulber, with the exception of the bunchberry image, which is by Jim Robertson. Grows 2 to 4 m, forms compact thickets. © 2020 Canadian Wildlife Federation. It will therefore tolerate sun to light shade and dry to moist soils, preferably slightly acidic. })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); It produces white berries in mid summer. And when it bears its bright red berries, it can be a complete stunner! However, shrubby dogwoods do not grow the showy bracts that the taller dogwood trees do. Note: C. obliqua is very similar, but its leaves taper at both ends and are pale beneath. A close-up of a flowering dogwood blossom. Trees are tolerant of varied soil types, but they must have well-drained soil. The flowers last for a couple of weeks in the spring before the leaves emerge. Light grey branches with white berries on scarlet stems by late summer to late fall. This information has been gathered from books and its accuracy has not been tested.). Takes sun or shade. If you are hoping to encourage your plants in their reproductive efforts, you're in luck. They do not have the nutritional value of our native dogwoods. Other dogwoods have clusters of small, creamy-white flowers. Bright, dark green foliage turns bright red in fall. Habitat: Grows in southern woods. Also known as Japanese dogwood, Chinese dogwood, and Korean dogwood, Kousa Dogwood is native to multiple regions in Asia and has become a highly popular ornamental tree in the United States. When ripe, they taste like a cross between cranberries and sour cherries. This second group – important as specimen trees – is discussed on our site as Dogwood Trees. The outer skin on the berry somewhat resembles lychee fruit. To learn more about growing native plants in your garden, visit our Get Growing section. Variegated Dogwood is a small shrub that is often used in the first row of a shelterbelt, as a hedge, or for soil stabilization projects. However, some, like the grey and round-leaved dogwoods, tolerate or even thrive in poor soil. Appearance: Its flowers are whitish and, unlike other dogwoods with flat clusters, appear in long, cone-shaped clusters, blooming late spring to early summer. Charitable registration # 10686 8755 RR0001, //
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