Another and even less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town". Thus, there were plans drawn up for the British to extensively bomb Soviet Oil Fields near Baku, as that was the oil … For Baku supplied 80% of the petrol, 90% of its naphtha and 96% of its lubricants to the Soviet Union war machine. The Wehrmacht's drive into the Caucasus in August 1942 seemed unstoppable, and taking the oil cities of Maikop, Grozny, and Baku would have solved one of Germany's most serious strategic problems. Vagit Alekperov, President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. [121][122], Baku Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city. [35] The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. The Heydar Aliyev International Airport is the only commercial airport serving Baku. [77] Baku was chosen to host the Eurovision Dance Contest 2010. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaries, the baths and the Juma Mosque (which used to house the Azerbaijan National Carpet and Arts Museum but is now a mosque again). [127] In 2010, the Baku International Sea Trade Port is began reconstruction. The boulevard contains an amusement park, yacht club, musical fountain, statues and monuments. Since about 1921, the city was headed by Baku City Executive Committee, commonly known in Russian as Bakgorispolkom. The Germans captured the city on 10 August 1942. Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply. Around 100,000 years ago, the territory of modern Baku and Absheron was savanna with rich flora and fauna. [83] Baku has an original and unique appearance, earning it a reputation as the 'Paris of the East'. This included Romania which had fought with the Allies in World War I. Romania was critical because of the vital Ploesti oil fields. – г. Баку, "The History of Oil in Azerbaijan by Natig Aliyev", "Which foreign banks has Azerbaijan capital been trusted in? Baku Metro was opened in November 1967 and includes 3 lines and 25 stations at present; 170 million people used Baku Metro over the past five years. [81][82], Baku has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of Baku port. Drilling for oil began in the mid-1800s, with the first oil well drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846. Following the victory of Azerbaijan's representative Eldar & Nigar at the Eurovision Song Contest 2011, Baku hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2012. [123] The completed branch will connect Baku with Tbilisi in Georgia, and from there trains will continue to Akhalkalaki, and Kars in Turkey. Festivals include Baku International Film Festival, Baku International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival. [28] It was mechanically drilled, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it. The smallest of the Russian oil fields at Maikop was captured in August 1942, and it was expected that the two remaining fields and refineries in Grozny and Baku also would fall into German hands. Four out of five Soviet aircraft, tanks and trucks used in World War II ran on fuel produced in Baku refineries from oil extracted in the Baku oil fields. During winter the khazri sweeps through, driven by polar air masses; temperatures on the coast frequently drop below freezing and make it feel bitterly cold. These will serve the new bus complex as well as the international airport. [95][96] Among Baku's prominent annual fairs and festivals is Baku International Jazz Festival, which features some of the world's most identifiable jazz names. [120] In 2019, the Baku suburban railway opened. Welcome to WWII Forums! [68] By the 15th century, oil for lamps was obtained from hand-dug surface wells. [11] In recent years, Baku has become an important venue for international events. Baga (now بغ bagh) and kuy are the Old Persian words for "god" and "town" respectively; the name Baghkuy may be compared with Baghdād ("God-given") in which dād is the Old Persian word for "give". [29] Soon after investors appeared in Baku, including the Nobel Brothers in 1873 and the Rothschilds in 1882. Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. The pioneer of oil extracting from the bottom of the sea was Polish geologist Witold Zglenicki. Celebrating 30 Years as Sister Cities", "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures", "Баку и Рио-де-Жанейро стали городами-побратимами – 1NEWS.AZ", "Azerbaijani US Ambassador: Israel Is a Pragmatic Partner and Good Friend, We Want it to Be Normal for Muslims and Jews to Be Allies", url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001305/130571e.pdf |ICOMOS, Baku's profile at the Organization of World Heritage Cities website, UNESCO World Heritage Site listing Walled City of Baku, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater, Azerbaijan State Museum of Musical Culture, Azerbaijan State University of Culture and Arts, Institutional seats of the European Union, Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest, Historic Centre of Sheki with the Khan’s Palace, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baku&oldid=996450036, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with Turkish-language sources (tr), Articles with Azerbaijani-language sources (az), Articles with dead external links from September 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with Serbian-language sources (sr), Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Articles lacking reliable references from June 2016, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Pages using infobox settlement with unknown parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Azerbaijan State Theatre of Song named after Rashid Behbudov, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 18:04. By the early 16th century Baku's wealth and strategic position attracted the focus of its larger neighbours; in the previous two centuries, it was under the rule of the in Iran-centred Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking, Baku is also among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife.[10]. The semi-autonomous Persian-ruled[23][24] Baku Khanate was one of these. Germany had very limited oil resources. However, unlike many other cities with such climate features, Baku does not see extremely hot summers and substantial sunshine hours. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. [32] The oil boom contributed to the massive growth of Baku. The Ottomans briefly gained control over Baku as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590; by 1607, it was again put under Iranian control. The capital of Azerbaijan, Baku ranked as the largest centre for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. At the beginning of 2009, Baku's urban population was estimated at just over two million people. [15] Near Nardaran, in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table. Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag, an ever-blazing spot of natural gas. Добро пожаловать в бакинский ад! Hitler's decision to launch a campaign at the Caucasus region in the south of the front was influenced by faulty information fed to him by his economic advisers: they t… : Academy Award winners Rustam Ibrahimbeyov and Vladimir Menshov, and it is known also that the could!, cultural, and knew the history of the more prominent institutions headquartered in Baku is divided into rayonlar... Elementary schools ( years 1 through 11 ) are operated by local wards or municipal offices forces. City Circuit that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city is for... 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