Crossley, Michael, and Myra Murby. Abstract. The statistics on the education of Dalitand Janajati children reveal lower enrolment rates than for children from higher caste groups. Education-Based Development Programs: Can they Work? In the seventeen year period, enrolment rates for Dalit boys grew from only 47.7% to a meagre 63.25%. Winter 2010, This essay has been recognised with an e-IR essay award, All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright © — E-International Relations. Raise awareness about importance of education, school enrollment procedure, and various government schemes for women and community development. • 129.117. In order for significant progress to be made in increasing the primary enrolment rates of Dalit children, development organizations must continue to explore varying levels of incentives and pursue national social equality in India. Teachers, who refused to touch the Dalit children even with sticks, would throw bamboo canes as undeserved punishment while children of other castes were permitted to throw mud. The Dalits, also known as the scheduled caste or untouchables, have experienced consistent denial to access to education since the 1850s. It is worth noting however that education does not fully level the playing field for marginalized groups. Kumar, Krishna, Manisha Priyam, and Sadhna Saxena. There have been many attempts over the past one hundred and fifty years to help increase the quality of life for the Dalits of India through development focused on enrolment in primary education. This solution eliminated the dangers associated with night-time schooling, but also did not help to decrease hostility between the classes. If a school is not able to purchase its own textbooks, then knowledge resources will be limited. The cruel and unjust treatment imposed upon the Dalits has decreased in frequency as history has progressed, although it still continues in today’s society. Because of unchanging social norms and behaviour, incentives to pursue education were minimal for the Dalits who were still physically and emotionally harassed. After the introduction of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled tribe Prevention of Atrocities Act of 1989, the practice of the caste system became illegal in India. He established the People’s Education Society in 1945 which believed that increasing access to education to the Dalits would increase their empowerment. Caught in a colonial struggle between European nations, Indian society had no motivation to determine who should manage social programs until the British established control over India. Accessed 30 Mar 2010, An Analysis of the Indian Further Education System Regarding Gender Inequality, The Role of Civil Society in Shaping India’s Development Partnerships, Safeguarding a Woman’s Right to Education and Water in Africa, Drones, Aid and Education: The Three Ways to Counter Terrorism, Please Mind The Gap: Winners and Losers of Neoliberalism in India. In 2006 the Special Rapporteur on the right to education, Mr. Vernor Munoz, recommended governments to “remove known barriers to the enrolment and retention in school of young and teenage girls belonging to all ethnic groups, castes and communities that are discriminated against” in in his report on girls’ access to education, paragraphs 80-85 and 140 (E/CN.4/2006/45). We believe it will lead to better enrollment of Muslim and Dalit girls along with other marginalized/disadvantaged groups (e.g. Promote more intercultural education and ensure that marginalized groups enjoy equal rights before the law (Thailand). The Dalit children, who knew retaliation would result only in increased abuse, would be essentially scared into not attending school (Freeman 67).  Of the limited number of Dalit children who were attending school, the majority were male; a trait which continues even today (Nambissan 1012). Achieving sustainable and lasting improvements in the quality of life of dalit and other marginalized and socially excluded groups, facilitating the access to education, promoting and advocating for their basic human rights, boosting community health, increasing the access to water & sanitation facilities and the livelihood opportunities. and Adivasis, stand excluded from the benefits of the land reform on . amount, in any currency, is appreciated. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, 2010, pp. The goal of the program is to reduce differences in enrolment between gender and social standing to 5%, and to decrease the dropout rate to 10%. The past century has been characterized by a global expansion of education. Exclusion in Indian Education: Students Marginalized by Caste and Religion. In India, the caste system is divided into five separate classes. However, this name has been adopted by the people otherwise referred to as Harijans, untouchables, and has come to symbolize for them a movement for change and for the eradication of the centuries-old oppression under the caste system. Print. “Textbook Provision and the Quality of the School Curriculum in Developing Countries: Issues and Policy Options.” Comparative Education 30.2 (1994): 99-114. One of the most important Dalit political activists who saw the value of social equity within India was Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, who became the chief architect of India’s constitution after years of social activism. They are hired on a short term basis but are offered extended terms as an incentive to perform well (Kumar, Priyam, & Saxena 565). “Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action.” 45.2 (2008): 245-270. The Maoist ... (Hill Dalits) and 10 subcaste groups from the Terai (Madhesi Dalits). Minor increases in incentives for Dalits to pursue primary education have been beneficial, but not sufficient in equalizing the enrolment gap between the Dalits and members of upper castes. bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. It is said that that India is at the threshold of a Dalit Revolution, dalits being the most marginalised people in India. About 17.2% of economic growth in Africa and 11.1% in Asia between the 1950s & 1960s have been credited to increases in education (Psacharopoulos 102). Psacharopoulos, George. Only 1% of all students at the time ever made it past primary education (Nambissan 1012). It is possible that national campaigns to increase enrolment in primary education fail to have a direct intended impact. Dalits face discrimination at almost every level, from access to education and medical facilities to restrictions on where they can live and what jobs they can have. The project aims to graduate/educate yearly 110 marginalised and excluded students through vocational and technical based education. “Education in arts and law cannot be of much value for the scheduled castes. The proposed project focuses on creating modern technical knowledge based generation among the marginalized and excluded people. As mentioned previously, the rates of return for primary education exceed those of secondary and university levelled education. 2005. http://www.friesian.com/caste.htm. Accessed 30 Mar 2010, Written by: Erik Fraser “”Dalit Rights are Human Rights”: Caste Discrimination, International Activism, and the “Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action.” Demography 45.2 (2008): 245-270. And the Dalit women, because they are women, are worse off. Dalits face discrimination at almost every level. As time progressed and the caste system began to weaken in India, there was a greater shift towards equalizing society so as to provide safer and more positive learning environments. Education has had an independent effect on life expectancy, increasing the age for educated individuals (Simon Wigley & Akkoyunlu-Wigley 290). The traditionally marginalized groups, Dalits . women, religious minorities, Dalits and physically challenged) communities. Education helps to ensure that benefits of growth are experienced by all. support open access publishing. Farmers' markets are touted to bring community development and nutritional benefits yet are criticized for being patronized by narrow segments of society. The medication has also proved more cost effective for the organizations administering the medication. Thorat, Sukhadeo. The efforts being put forward by the government lost momentum over the next few decades however, as the rate of primary schools being constructed slipped from 5.8% in the 1960s, to 2.1% during the 1970s, and eventually down to only 1.3% through the 1980s (Nambissan 1015). • 129.144. Print. Print. “The Caste System in Hinduism.” Web. In addition, teachers at the schools are often members of upper castes who set low expectations for the Dalit children and rarely seek to provide them with a positive learning environment. New textbooks provide little incentive for Dalit children to attend classes as they do not alleviate any of the barriers currently blocking them from access education. Marginalised groups are often left behind by national educational policies, denying many people their right to education. “Looking beyond the Smokescreen: DPEP and Primary Education in India.” Economic and Political Weekly 36.7 (2001): 560-568. Many preventable diseases, including hookworm, roundworm and whipworm affect millions of children worldwide every year, preventing them for attending any sort of school or doing any physical labour (Miguel & Kremer 159). By Indian Christian Women’s Movement. Twentieth century policies helped officially decrease some of the animosity and inequality between groups so that the Indian government could have a greater focus on national primary enrolment rates. Ensuring access to education for the Dalits of India has been the greatest challenge for the Indian government in diminishing the social effects of the caste system, which still remain entrenched in Indian society. The Dalit community is the most marginalised and socially excluded group in Bangladesh. Due to discrimination from higher castes, the Dalits did not feel comfortable attending schools. Adams, and A. Dubey. Then, during the 1850s, the British began the long process of increasing the accessibility of education to all citizens on India. We are also working with local organisation Parivartan Kendra, supporting their advocacy work for Dalit communities in the rural Vaishali areas. Desai, Sonalde, and Veena Kulkarni. Earlier strategies focused on finding ways to give Dalit children an education without exposing them to the harshness of upper castes. The ancient caste system of India, which has resulted in the social and economic oppression of the Dalits, continues to play a dominant role in India. To find out more about E-IR essay awards, click here. The research will look at the need of human rights groups in India today to seek to create democratic space for marginalized groups like Muslims and Dalits and access democratic institutions for their empowerment. To most, this was the first step towards social equalization within India. Education expands the knowledge of possibility to poor individuals, and is often a necessary factor in providing incentive to escape poverty and social oppression. Since gaining its independence, the Indian government has continued to make progress on improving the quality of life for India’s lowest caste. are supported to realise their rights, bringing change through the creation of dialogue and the use of nonviolent action. A smaller scale, and more capital based approach to development and increasing primary enrolment rates is the allocation of additional textbooks to a community. The responsibility for social equalization fell fully upon the Indian government when it gained its independence from Britain in 1948. Print. ARE YOU FROM A GRANT MAKING TRUST OR FOUNDATION? Often, governments try to bring in international assistance in dealing with a national crisis like severely low primary enrolment rates. Dalit respondents to job advertisements were less likely to be called up than upper caste respondents with the same qualifications, the economists Sukhadeo … Simon Wigley, and Arzu Akkoyunlu-Wigley. Many Dalits have attempted to avoid the caste system by converting from Hinduism to other religions, although this rarely allows these individuals to escape their social and economic hardships. Modern exposure to international thought has increased access to ideas and methods on how to increase education rates for the Dalits, providing for some of the best results in recent years (Nambissan 1011). It was because of this, that when the British handed over control of the country to India in 1948, the Indian government began thinking of new ways to increase access to education. By using any of these reasons as motivation to pursue educational development, governments are attempting to generate some form of social or economic equality for the population. This content was originally written for an undergraduate or Master's program. Quick Look Resources. Desai, S., C.D. Why Is China’s Belt and Road Initiative Being Questioned by Japan and India. Nambissan, Geetha B. “Equity in Education? One of the most important objectives of education is to equalize opportunity enabling the marginalized, backward or the underprivileged classes to use education for improvement of their conditions. ​Children on the Edge, 5 The Victoria, 25 St Pancras, Chichester,  West Sussex, Bangladesh: Education for Rohingya refugee children, India: Education for 'untouchable' Dalit children, Uganda: Early Years Education for Congolese refugee children, Kachin State Myanmar: Support for displaced children, Bangladesh: Community Schools for slum dwelling children, Lebanon: Education for Syrian refugee children, India-Nepal border: Education for children in brothel communities, READ MORE ABOUT THE EDGE FOR DALIT COMMUNITIES >>, READ ABOUT OUR COVID RESPONSE IN INDIA >>. “Human Capabilities versus Human Capital: Guaging the Value of Education in Developing Countries.” Social Indicators Research 78.2 (2006): 287-304. They will benefit more by advanced education in science and technology.” Nov. 17 2008. http://www.livemint.com/2008/11/17211850/Giving-schoolchildren-a-chance.html. For centuries, the Dalit population of India were forbidden from gaining access to education. The education gap can also be understood to translate through the entire schooling system, with the proportion of Dalit to non-Dalit success remaining at a constant low rate through primary, secondary, and post-secondary schooling. In this sense, the free drugs associated with this program not only provide incentive for children to come to school and learn, but they also serve a second purpose in that they keep students healthy, ensuring they are physically capable of returning to school. There are many factors that act as obstacles for Dalits attempting to gain a primary education, and which many development methods have attempted to overcome. proportional representation of indigenous peoples, Dalit, women, Madhesis, and other marginalized communities in state structure as stated in Article 21 of the Interim Constitution. A family’s financial situation plays a role in whether or not they are able to afford to send a child to school. Construction of a New Human Rights Issue.” Human Rights Quarterly 29.1 (2007): 167-193. The Dalit population continues to struggle for equality, though the progress of the past few decades shows hope for an improved level of equality within Indian society. Often referred to in Indian culture as the untouchables, these were the people who have the harshest and most unjust restrictions imposed upon them (Desai & Kulkarni). This work can be used for background reading and research, but should not be cited as an expert source or used in place of scholarly articles/books. Increasing access to text books has assisted in increasing the quality of education despite having little or no impact on enrolment rates. Using medication and deworming medicines as incentives, international organizations including the World Health Organization and The Forum of Young Leaders’ campaign, Deworm the World, have developed a successful outside-the-box approach to increasing enrolment and attendance rates. This was complemented by a shift in funding from primary school education to middle school education. Print. Dalit children were required to sit outside the school, listening on the veranda while those in higher castes would be taught inside. In addition, it can help empower individuals to lobby for social change through political activism. ... Education by social group 112.53 0.000 106.85 0.000 84.38 0.000 40.47 0.000. The final and often most realistic reasons for why the Dalits have failed to take advantage of their access to education is a combination of a history of oppression and a lack of access to local, quality education systems. Since the introduction of the DPEP, India has actually managed to see decreasing primary enrolment rates (Kumar, Priyam, & Saxena 567). When discussing methods which seek to improve enrolment rates, it is important to analyze which circumstances prevent Dalit children from attending school. Another proposed solution was the use of all-Dalit schools. Instead of increasing enrolment, additional textbooks only had an effect on increased performance levels. An alternative reason to study education is for its ability to empower the individual to strive for an improved quality of life. The 1948 independence of India prompted an increase in responsibility for the government to promote the economic and educational interests of the lower castes and to protect the Dalits from social injustices and exploitations. In addition to the cruel and humiliating circumstances the Dalits have been put in, their efforts to improve their situation have often been squashed by assault, rape and murder by upper castes threatened by the Dalits’ search for equality (Bob 173). Children who attended schools which offered this program not only remained healthy, but felt more comfortable attending school on a regular basis. These Para-teachers are trained teachers hired by the DPEP program to fill growing vacancies in primary schools. Bossuroy, Thomas and Clara Delavallade. Many suggestions, both traditional and modern, have arisen on how to go about resolving issues surrounding Dalit primary enrolment. Marginality is an experience that affects millions of people throughout the world. Stand Up For Justice For Dalit And Marginalized Groups. Education 21 Agriculture and Natural Resource Management 25 ... ment for the marginalized groups allowed the Maoist insurgents to exploit social disparities to their advantage in their People’s War. Before beginning to examine methods of improving enrolment in primary education and literacy rates, it is important to know why education is such an important topic in development studies. This allows them to better deal with problems in their everyday lives including taking a loan out from the bank, defending them in a court of law, escaping unhealthy personal relationships or avoiding jobs which would expose them to unsafe working conditions (Simon Wigley & Akkoyunlu-Wigley 293).  Even the value of holding a basic education is in itself a frequently overlooked asset. Dalits became the most marginalized communities in Nepal, in terms of socio-economic indicators and political representation. Many thanks! The biggest concern which arises out of providing textbooks is that it will not increase enrolment rates. Of these Dalit children, 93% were attending all-Dalit schools. In some areas of the country, the Dalits were not permitted to walk in daylight for their shadows were considered pollution (Nambissan 1011). E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. “Education and Development: A Review.” The World Bank Research Observer 3.1 (1988): 99-116. 503 Mall Court #296. Miguel, Edward, and Michael Kremer. 11 2010, http://www.friesian.com/caste.htm. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. A big factor impacted by education is that human beings often base their life goals and everyday actions on what they perceive to be feasible (Simon Wigley & Akkoyunlu-Wigley 290). In rural areas, Dalits were excluded from temples, village wells and tea shops. The right to education is universal and does not allow for any form of exclusion or discrimination. The quota or reservation system was devised to make education accessible to the underprivileged castes by setting aside a certain percentage of seats for enrollment of students from Dalit and other marginalized sections of society. By focussing on universalizing the education, a special focus on Dalit children’s education is lost, due to which the Dalit children continue to get marginalized. Providing free deworming medication at school has proven successful both in increasing the health of children which prevents absenteeism, and in increasing enrolment levels. Still occurring today, caste harassment makes teaching environments unstable for caste children, it places caste homes on the outskirts of towns so that children have greater distances to walk to school, and it economically suppresses the Dalits so that they are unable to pay for their children’s education. Throughout the 1800s and into the mid 1940s, conditions for Dalit children within the Indian education system were very poor. Increasing efforts to eliminate caste discrimination combined with additional attempts to increase the accessibility and appeal for education have contributed to the slow progression of Dalit education. It is therefore of greater value for governments to focus first on increasing access to primary education before moving onto to increase levels of education. However, there have been efforts to universalise the elementary education but no efforts seem to take place on analysing the poor education indicators of Dalit children. Between 1983 and 2000, improvements in access to education for all of India have been made, although the difference between education rates for Dalits, especially females, and those in higher castes remained constant. Because the Dalit children were often harassed when they attended schools, the British chose to propose alternative teaching methods, rather than directly addressing the caste issue. Despite efforts to decrease caste discrimination and increase national social programs, the Dalits of India continue to experience low enrolment rates and a lack of access to primary education in comparison to the rest of India. While some benefits of social programs and government policies designed to increase primary education rates can be noticed, the Dalit literate population still remains much lower than that of the rest of India. The term Dalit means ‘oppressed', ‘broken' or ‘crushed' to the extent of losing original identity. These two methods combined resulted in a 4% primary enrolment rate for Dalit children by 1931, 81 years after education was first opened to all citizens on India. This method been proven as a more effective way of increasing education levels compared to food incentives. “Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities.” Econometrica 72.1 (2004): 159-217. The highest class in Indian society is that of the priests and teachers, or Brahmins, followed by the warrior class, the Kshatriyas . Deworming, however, remains more effective because costs associated with deworming medication are twenty times less expensive than providing school uniforms (Bossuroy & Delavallade). A vicious circle is set up whereby their lack of positive and supportive relationships means that they are prevented from participating in local life, which in turn leads to further isolation. The curriculum includes a focus on self esteem, human rights (under Indian and international law), caste discrimination and local justice systems. Casteism, being the most complex and discriminatory social system of the world, vehemently denied the right of Dalits to have education. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to Bob, Clifford. Girls belonging to marginalized groups such as Dalitsor Janajatisare doubly deprived of their right to education due to their gender and caste (Chitrakar, 2009). "Caste, Exclusion, and Marginalized Groups in India: Dalit Deprivation in India." Any School uniforms, which are often so expensive as to prevent young girls from attending school, have had relatively equivalent success in increasing enrolments rates in young females. In a case examined by Miguel and Kremer, female attendance increased by 10% in subject areas, nearly two times that of males (Desai & Kulkarni). 2006. “In the Margins: Social Inequalities in Children’s     Educational Outcomes in India.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population         Association of America, March 30–April 1, Los Angeles. The Constitution itself permits education in the mother tongue only up to primary level … Night classes and all-Dalit schools provided a safer learning environment for the Dalits, but did not address any issues of caste conflict. Larger operations, including the DPEP cooperative project with The World Bank failed to resolve some of the grass-root issues which deterred Dalits from attending school. Thus letters and literature were inaccessible for Dalits for about three millennia; even though they kept their oral tradition alive. Contact Us (734) 365-6559. info@mibreastfeeding.org. Edited by Anastasia NikolopoulouTaisha Abraham and Farid Mirbagheri. 3-27. Even poorer results were observed when looking at the female Dalit enrolment rate, which inched from 15.72% to 32.61%, when compared to their upper-caste counterparts whose enrolment climbed from 43.56% to 59.15% (Desai & Kulkarni). They are a low-cost alternative to permanent teaching staff and their performance is often higher due to increased incentives. The remainder of this section will examine some of the strategies used over the past one hundred and fifty years, attempting to look at how effective they really were. Technical education for Dalits “They [Scheduled Castes] have not progressed in science and engineering education,” Ambedkar said. It was also the beginning of a series of attempts to increase accessibility to education for members of the dalit caste. Desai, Sonalde, and Veena Kulkarni. “Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action.” Demography 45.2 (2008): 245-270. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. This decade coincided with Britain’s established control over India, which meant many of the improvements to Dalit education were coming from outside influences, rather than from the national government. There are currently some 166.6 million Dalits in India. The 1991 census of India reported that Dalit communities were one of the least literate social groups in the country, with only 30% of Dalit children recognized to have basic reading and writing skills (Nambissan 1011). Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our There have been a number of suggestions proposed as to why the Dalits have yet to take advantage of open access to education. The lack of incentives to pursue education for the Dalits of India can be traced back to a long history of mistreatment and oppression. Prescribed to the Indian government by the World Bank, the District Primary Education Program was designed to increase primary enrolment rates within India. Accessed Jun. Written for: Dr. David P. Thomas To coincide with the signing of the act, the Indian education system became accessible to every member of society. 11 2010. Deep-seated low self esteem and abuse has trapped Dalit communities in a cycle of poverty, abuse and exclusion. Development projects focused on increasing access to basic education, rather than ones that increase capital to improve current levels of education, ensure governments are able to know that the benefits of these programs are experienced by all, rather than a select few. This transition exemplified the government’s shifted focus from increasing primary enrolment rates to increasing the quality of the education provided to those already provided with sufficient access to education. The Dalits have experienced a bit of progress in establishing an equal position in Indian society. IDSN recommends governments to take, as appropriate, the following measures to ensure Dalits’ right to equal participation and non-discri… Groups are often the only basis for a curriculum in a Globalizing World is said. Children who attended schools which offered this program not only remained healthy, did! Fill growing vacancies in primary education to the harshness of upper castes, the Indian government by the World,. Students who committed suicide … Stand Up for Justice for Dalit communities in the gap between social... A caste, were the Dalits of India. increasing access to education Dalit and marginalized groups enjoy equal before. 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